Biotechnology and its Applications, Biotechnology Principles and Processes NEET Questions and Answers

The Biology section of NEET consists of 90 questions each carrying 4 marks. This section carries the highest weightage in NEET paper. Score in the Biology section also acts as an important tie-breaking factor while compiling the NEET merit list. It is, therefore, very important for you to answer as many NEET Biology…..

These Biotechnology and its Applications and Biotechnology Principles and Processes NEET Questions and Answers covers all possible questions for NEET, AIIMS, JIPMER and other medical entrance exams. These Biotechnology and its Applications NEET Questions and Answers are composed from NCERT books and Previous years question papers.

1. In RNAi, genes are silenced using:

(A) ss DNA

(B) ds DNA

(C) ds RNA

(D) ss RNA

Answer: ds RNA

2. In vitro clonal propagation in plants is characterized by

(A) PCR and RAPD

(B) Northern blotting

(C) Electrophoresis and HPLC

(D) Microscopy

Answer: PCR and RAPD

3. Maximum application of animal culture technology today is in the production

(A) Insulin

(B) Interferons

(C) Edible proteins

(D) Vaccines

Answer: Vaccines

4. Which vector can be clone only a small fragment of DNA?

(A) Bacterial artificial chromosome

(B) Yeast artificial chromosome

(C) Plasmid

(D) Cosmid

Answer: Plasmid

  1. Which of the following is a plasmid?

(A) pBR322

(B) BamH-I

(C) Hind-III

(D) EcoRI

Answer: pBR322

  1. Restriction endonucleases are must widely used in recombinant DNA technology. They are obtained from

(A) Bacteriophages

(B) Bacterial cells

(C) Plasmids

(D) All Prokaryotie Cells

Answer: Bacterial cells

  1. Viral genome incorporated into host DNA is called

(A) Prophase

(B) Prophage

(C) Bacteriophage

(D) None of these

Answer: Prophage

  1. Two microbes found to be very useful in genetic engineering are

(A) Crown gall bacterium and Conorhabditis elegens

(B) Escherichia coli to Agrobacterium tumifaciens

(C) Vibria choleraeand a tailed bacteriphage

(D) Dipococens species and psendomonasap

Answer: Escherichia coli to Agrobacterium tumifaciens

  1. Who disconnected recombinant DNA technoledge?

(A) Har Gobind Khorana

(B) James Watson & Francis Crick

(C) Stanly Cohen & Herbert Boyer

(D) Watter Sutton

Answer: Stanly Cohen & Herbert Boyer

  1. Find out the wrong statement ?

(A) Mobile genetic element, Transposons were visualized by Barbara Mc Clintock

(C) Dr. Ian Wilmut produced a cloned sheep called Dolley

(D) DNA ligases are used to cleave a DNA molecule

Answer: DNA ligases are used to cleave a DNA molecule

  1. One of the key factors which makes the plasmid the vector in genetic engineering is that

(A) It is resistant to antibiotics

(B) It is resistant to restriction enzymes

(C) Its ability to carry a foreign gene

(D) Its ability to cause infection in the host

Answer: Its ability to carry a foreign gene

  1. Which of the following is used as a best genetic vector in plants

(A) Bacillus thurienglnesis

(B) Agrobacterium thumifaciens

(C) Psendomonas putida

(D) All of the above

Answer: Agrobacterium thumifaciens

  1. The polymerase chain reaction is a technique that

(A) It is used for in vivo replication of DNA

(B) It is used for in vivo synthesis of mRNA

(C) It is used for in vitro synthesis of mRNA

(D) It is used for in vitro replication of specific DNA sequence using thermostable DNA polymerase.

Answer: It is used for in vitro replication of specific DNA sequence using thermostable DNA polymerase.

  1. The construction of the first recombinant DNA was done by using the native plasmid of

(A) E coli

(B) Salmonella typhimurium

(C) Bacillus thuringiensis

(D) Agrobacterium

Answer: Salmonella typhimurium

  1. Gel electrophoresis is used for

(A) Construction of recombinant DNA by joining with cloning vectors

(B) Isolation of DNA molecules

(C) Cutting of DNA is to fragments

(D) Separation of DNA fragments according to their size

Answer: Separation of DNA fragments according to their size

  1. Significant of ‘heat shoch’ method in bacterial transformation is to facilitate ?

(A) Binding of DNA to the cell wall

(B) Update of DNA through membrane transport proteins

(C) Update of DNA through transient pores in the bacterial cell wall

(D) Expression of antibiotic resistant gene

Answer: Update of DNA through transient pores in the bacterial cell wall

  1. Which of the following palindromic bare sequences in DNA can be easily cut at about the middle by some particular restriction enzyme.

(A) 5’CACGTA 3’ : 3’CTCAGT 5’

(B) 5’CGTTCG 3’ : 3’ATGGTA 5’

(C) 5’GATATC 3’ : 3’CTACTA 5’

(D) 5’GAATTC 3’ : CTTAAG 5’

Answer: 5’GAATTC 3’ : CTTAAG 5’

  1. Agarose extracted from sea weeds in used in

(A) Spectrophotometry

(B) Tissue culture

(C) PCR

(D) Gel electrophoresis

Answer: Gel electrophoresis

  1. Which one of the following technique made it possible to genetically engineered living organisms?

(A) Recombinant DNA technique

(B) X-ray diffraction

(C) Heavier isotope labelling

(D) Hybridization

Answer: Recombinant DNA technique

  1. There is a restriction endonucleare called EcoRI. What does ‘co’ part in it stand for?

(A) Colon

(B) Coelom

(C) Coenzyme

(D) Coli

Answer: Coli

  1. The DNA fragments have sticky ends due to

(A) Endonuclease

(B) Unpaired bases

(C) Calcium ions

(D) Free methylation

Answer: Unpaired bases

  1. Plasmids are used as cloning vectors for which of the following reasons?

(A) Can be multiplied in culture

(B) Self-replication in bacterial cells

(C) Can be multiplied in laboratories with the help of enzymes

(D) Replicate freely outside bacterial cells

Answer: Can be multiplied in laboratories with the help of enzymes

  1. The human genome project was launched in the year

(A) 1980

(B) 1973

(C) 1990

(D) 1989

Answer: 1990

  1. The vaccines prepared through recombinant DNA technology are

(A) Third generation vaccines

(B) First-generation vaccines

(C) Second-generation vaccines

(D) None

Answer: Third generation vaccines

  1. Which is a genetically modified crop?

(A) Bt-cotton

(B) Bt-brinjal

(C) Golden rice

(D) All

Answer: All

  1. PCR technique was invented by

(A) Karry Mullis

(B) Boyer

(C) Sanger

(D) Cohn

Answer: Karry Mullis

  1. The first transgenic plant to be produced is

(A) Brinjal

(B) Tobacco

(C) Rice

(D) Cotton

Answer: Tobacco

  1. RNA interference helps in

(A) Cell proliferation

(B) Micropropagation

(C) Cell defence

(D) Cell differentiation

Answer: Cell defence

  1. Which of the following is the quality of improved transgenic basmati rice?

(A) Gives high yield but no characteristic aroma

(B) Gives high yield and is rich in vitamin A

(C) Does not require chemical fertilizers and growth hormones

(D) Resistant to insects and diseases

Answer: Gives high yield and is rich in vitamin A

  1. The first clinical application of gene therapy over a 4 year old girl was for

(A) Adenosine deaminase deficiency

(B) Adenosine deficiency

(C) Growth deficiency

(D) Adenine deficiency

Answer: Adenosine deaminase deficiency

  1. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes which

(A) Make cuts at specific positions within the DNA molecule

(B) Recognize a specific nucleotide sequence for binding of DNA ligase

(C) Restrict the actions of the enzyme DNA polymerase

(D) Remove nucleotides from the ends of the DNA molecules

Answer: Make cuts at specific positions within the DNA molecule

  1. Stirred-tank bioreactors have been designed for

(A) Addition of preservatives to the products

(B) Purification of the product

(C) Ensuring anaerobics conditions in the culture vessel

(D) Availability of oxygen throughout the process

Answer: Availability of oxygen throughout the process

  1. Which of the following are used in gene cloning?

(A) Nucleoids

(B) Lomasomes

(C) Mesosomes

(D) Plasmids

Answer: Plasmids

  1. In genetic engineering, a DNA segment (Gene) of interest, is transferred to the host cell through a vector. Consider the following four agents (i-iv) in this regard and select the correct option about which one or more of these can be used as a vector/vectors
    i) Bacterium
    ii) Plasmid
    iii) Plasmodium
    iv) Bacteriophage

(A) (i),(ii) & (iv)

(B) (i) only

(C) (i) & (iii)

(D) (ii) & (iv)

Answer: (ii) & (iv)

  1. Given below is a simple of a portion of DNA strand giving the base sequence on the opposite strands. What is so special shown in it?
    5’ GAATTC 3’      
    3’ CTTAAG 5’

(A) Replication completed

(B) Deletion mutation

(C) Start condon at the 5’ end

(D) Plindromic sequence of base pairs

Answer: Plindromic sequence of base pairs

  1. There is a restriction endomolecules called Eco RI. What does “co” part in it stand for ?

(A) Colon

(B) Coelom

(C) Coenzyme

(D) Coli

Answer: Coli

  1. Agarose extracted from sea weeds is used in

(A) Spectrophotometry

(B) Tissue culture

(C) PCR

(D) Gel electrophoresis

Answer: Gel electrophoresis

  1. Which one of the following techniques made it possible to genetically engineer living organisms ?

(A) Recombinant DNA techniques

(B) X-ray diffraction

(C) Heavier isotope labeling

(D) Hybridizatiion

Answer: Recombinant DNA techniques

  1. The given figure is the diagrammatic representation of the E.Coli vector pBR322. Which one of the given options correctly identifies its certain components(s) ? 

(A) Ori-original restriction enzyme

(B) Rop-reduced osmotic pressure

(C) Hin d III, Eco RI selectable markers

(D) AmpR , tetR – antibiotic resistance genes

Answer: AmpR , tetR – antibiotic resistance genes

  1. PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism are the methods for

(A) Study of enzymes

(B) Genetic transformations

(C) DNA sequencing

(D) Genetic fingerprints

Answer: Genetic fingerprints

  1. Excision and insertion of a gene is called

(A) Biotechnology

(B) Genetic engineering

(C) Cytogenetics

(D) Gene therapy

Answer: Genetic engineering

  1. The expression of a transgene in the target tissue is identified by a

(A) Transgene

(B) Promoter

(C) Enhancer

(D) Reporter

Answer: Reporter

  1. ———– is used as a vector for cloning into higher organisms

(A) Retrovirus

(B) Baculovirus

(C) Salmonella typhimurium

(D) Rhizopus nigricans

Answer: Retrovirus

  1. Which bacterium is used in the production of insulin by genetic engineering?

(A) Saccharomyces

(B) Rhizobium

(C) Escherichia

(D) Mycobacterium

Answer: Escherichia

  1. Restriction endonuclease

(A) Synthesizes DNA

(B) Cuts the DNA molecule randomly

(C) Cuts the DNA molecule at specific sites

(D) Restricts the synthesis of DNA inside the molecules

Answer: Cuts the DNA molecule at specific sites

  1. Gel electrophoresis is used for

(A) Construction of recombinant DNA by joining with cloning vectors

(B) Isolation of DNA molecules

(C) Cutting of DNA into fragments

(D) Separation of DNA fragments according to their size

Answer: Separation of DNA fragments according to their size

  1. The linking of antibiotic resistance gene with the plasmid vector become possible with

(A) DNA polymerase

(B) Exonucleases

(C) DNA ligase

(D) Endonucleases

Answer: DNA ligase

  1. Polyethylene glycol method is used for

(A) Biodiesel production

(B) Seedless fruit production

(C) Energy production from swage

(D) Gene transfer without a vector

Answer: Gene transfer without a vector

  1. Which one of the following is used as vector for cloning genes into higher organisms ?

(A) Baculovirus

(B) Salmonella typhimurium

(C) Rhizopus nigricans

(D) Retrovirus

Answer: Retrovirus

  1. DNA or RNA segment tagged with a radioactive molecules is called

(A) Vector

(B) Probe

(C) Clone

(D) Plasmid

Answer: Probe

  1. A single stand of nucleic acid tagged tagged with a radioactive molecule is called

(A) Vector

(B) Selectable marker

(C) Plasmid

(D) Probe

Answer: Probe

  1. For transformation, micro particles coated with DNA to be bombared with gene gun are made up of

(A) Silver or Platinum

(B) Platinum or Zine

(C) Silicon or Platinum

(D) Gold or Tungsten

Answer: Gold or Tungsten

  1. Biolistics (Gene-gun) is suitable for

(A) Disarming pathogen vectors

(B) Transformation of plant cells

(C) Constructing recombinant DNA by joining with vectors

(D) DNA fingerprinting

Answer: Transformation of plant cells

  1. In genetic engineering, the antibiotics are used

(A) As selectable markers

(B) To select healthy vectors

(C) As sequence from where replication starts

(D) To keep the culture free from infection

Answer: As selectable markers

  1. Restriction enzymes were discovered by

(A) Smith and Nathans

(B) Alexander Fleming

(C) Berg

(D) None

Answer: Smith and Nathans

  1. Bacteria protect themselves from viruses by fragmenting viral DNA with

(A) Ligase

(B) Endonuclease

(C) Exonuclease

(D) Gyrase

Answer: Endonuclease

  1. Klenow fragment is derived from

(A) DNA Ligase

(B) DNA Pol-I

(C) DNA Pol-II

(D) Reverse Transcriptase

Answer: DNA Pol-I

  1. Southern blotting is

(A) Attachment of probes to DNA fragments

(B) Transfer of DNA fragments from electrophoretic gel to a nitrocellulose sheet

(C) Comparison of DNA fragments to two sources

(D) Transfer of DNA fragments to electrophoretic gel from cellulose membrane

Answer: Transfer of DNA fragments from electrophoretic gel to a nitrocellulose sheet

  1. ELISA is

(A) Using radiolabelled second antibody

(B) Usage of RBCs

(C) Using complement-mediated cell lysis

(D) Addition of substrate that is converted into a coloured end product

Answer: Addition of substrate that is converted into a coloured end product

  1. The Golden Rice variety is rich in

(A) Vitamin C

(B) Β-carotene and ferritin

(C) Biotin

(D) Lysine

Answer: Β-carotene and ferritin

  1. A singe strand of nucleic acid tagged with a radioactive molecules is called

(A) Vector

(B) Selectable marker

(C) Plasmid

(D) Probe

Answer: Probe

  1. Which one of the following is a case of wrong matching ?

(A) Somatic Hybridization- Fusion of two diverse cells

(B) Vector DNA- Site for tRNA synthesis

(C) Micropropagation- in vitro production of plants in large numbers

(D) Callus- Unorganised mass of cells produced in tissue culture

Answer: Vector DNA- Site for tRNA synthesis

  1. Which one is a true statement regarding DNA polymerase used in PCR ?

(A) It is used to ligate introduced DNA in recipients cells

(B) It serves as a selectable marker

(C) It is isolated from a virus

(D) It remains active at high temperature

Answer: It remains active at high temperature

  1. For transformation, micro-particles coated with DNA to be bombarded with gene gun are made up of

(A) Silver or platinum

(B) Platinum or zinc

(C) Silicon or platinum

(D) Gold or trungsten

Answer: Gold or trungsten

  1. Biolistics (gene-gun) is suitable

(A) Disarming pathogen vector

(B) Transformation of plant cells

(C) Constructing recombinant DNA by joining with vectors

(D) DNA fingerprinting

Answer: Transformation of plant cells

  1. In genetic engineering, the antibiotics are used

(A) As selectable markers

(B) To select healthy vectors

(C) As sequence from where replication starts

(D) To keep the culture free of infection

Answer: As selectable markers

  1. Which one of the following represents a palindromic sequence in DNA ?

(A) 5’-GAATTC-3 3’-CTTAAG-5’

(B) 5’-CCAATG-3’

(C) 3’-GAATCC-5’

(D) 5’-CATTAG-3’ 3’-GATAAC-5’

Answer: 5’-GAATTC-3 3’-CTTAAG-5’

  1. The colonies of recombinant bacteria appear white in contrast to blue colonies of non- recombinant bacteria because of

(A) Insertional inactivation of alpha galactosidese in recombinant bacteria

(B) Inactivation of glycosides enzyme in recombinant bacteria

(C) Non-recombinant bacteria containing beta galactosidase

(D) Insertional inactivation of alpha galactosidase

Answer: Non-recombinant bacteria containing beta galactosidase

  1. Which of the following is not correctly matched for the organism and its cell wall degrading enzyme?

(A) Algae – Methylase

(B) Fungi – Chitinase

(C) Bacteria – Lysozyme

(D) Plant cells – Cellulase

Answer: Algae – Methylase

  1. DNA fragments generated by the restriction endonucleases in a chemical reaction can be separated by

(A) Electrophoresis

(C) Centrifugation

(B) Restriction mapping

(D) Polymerase chain reaction

Answer: Electrophoresis

71. An analysis of chromosomal DNA using the southern hybridization technique does not use

(A) Electrophoresis

(B) Blotting

(C) Autoradiography

(D) PCR

Answer: PCR

72. Transfer of DNA bands from an agrose gel to a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane is referred to as

(A) Western transfer

(B) Northern transfer

(C) Eastern transfer

(D) Southern transfer

Answer: Southern transfer

73. Golden rice is a promising transgenic crop. When released for cultivation, it will help in

(A) Producing a petrol-like fuel from rice

(B) Alleviation of vitamin A

(C) Pest resistance

(D) Herbicide tolerance

Answer: Alleviation of vitamin A

74. A genetically engineered micro-organism used successfully in bioremediation of oil spills is a species of

(A) Trichoderma

(B) Xanthomonass

(C) Bacillus

(D) Pseudomonas

Answer: Pseudomonas

75. Blindness is prevented by use of which crop in poor countries?

(A) Golden rice

(B) Wheat

(C) Gram

(D) Pea

Answer: Golden rice

76. Human insulin is being commercially produced from a transgenic species of

(A) Rhizobium

(B) Saccharomyces

(C) Escherichia

(D) None of these

Answer: Escherichia

77. A transgenic food crop which may help in solving the problem of night blindness in developing countries is

(A) Bt soybean

(B) Golden rice

(C) Flavrsavrtomatoes

(D) Starlink maize

Answer: Golden rice

78. The technique of obtaining large number of plantlet by tissue culture method is called

(A) Plantlet culture

(B) Micropropagation

(C) Organ culture

(D) Macropropagation

Answer: Micropropagation

79. Maximum application of animal cell culture technology today is in the production of

(A) Insulin

(B) Interferons

(C) Edible proteins

(D) Vaccines

Answer: Vaccines

80. In tissue culture medium, the embryoids formed from pollen grains is due to

(A) Organogenesis

(B) Cellular totipotency

(C) Double fertilization

(D) Test tube culture

Answer: Cellular totipotency

81. What is true for monoclonal antibodies?

(A) These antibodies obtained from one parent and for one antigen

(B) These obtained from many parents and for many antigens

(C) These obtained from different parents and for one antigen

(D) These obtained from one parent and for many antigens

Answer: These obtained from different parents and for one antigen

82. Two bacteria found to be very useful in genetic engineering experiments are

(A) Nitrobacter and Azotobacter

(B) Rhizobium and Diplococcus

(C) Nitrosomonas and Kliebsiella

(D) Escherichia and Agrobacterium

Answer: Escherichia and Agrobacterium

83. A genetically engineered microorganism used successfully in bioremediation of oil spills is a species of

(A) Trichoderma

(B) Bacillus

(C) Xanthomonas

(D) Pseudomonas

Answer: Pseudomonas

84. Probiotics are

(A) cancer inducing microbes

(B) safe antibiotics

(C) new kind of food allergens

(D) live microbial food supplement

Answer: live microbial food supplement

85. In order to obtain virus free plants through tissue culture the best method is

(A) meristem culture

(B) protoplast culture

(C) anther culture

(D) embryo rescue

Answer: meristem culture

86. Insect resistant transgenic cotton has been produced by inserting a piece of DNA from

(A) An insect

(B) A bacterium

(C) A wild relative of cotton

(D) A virus

Answer: A bacterium

87. Hybridoma technology has been successfully used in

(A) Production of somatic hybrids

(B) Synthesis of monoclonal antibiotics

(C) Synthesis of haemoglobin

(D) Pproduction of alcohol in bulk

Answer: Synthesis of monoclonal antibiotics

88. Genetically engineered bacteria are being employed for production of

(A) Thyroxine

(B) Human insulin

(C) Cortisol

(D) Epinephrine

Answer: Thyroxine

89. Isolation of Bt gene from bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis) was taken up in the year

(A) 1977

(B) 1980

(C) 1997

(D) 1990

Answer: 1980

90. Which one of the following is commonly used in transfer of foreign DNA into crop plants?

(A) Meloidogyne incognita

(B) Agrobacterium tumefaciens

(C) Pencillium expansum

(D) Trichoderma harzianum

Answer: Agrobacterium tumefaciens

90. What is true about Bt toxin?

(A) Bt toxin exists as active toxin in the Bacillius

(B) The activated toxin enters the ovaries of the pest to sterlise it and thus prevents its multiplication

(C) The concerned Bacillus has anti toxin

(D) The inactive prototoxin gets converted into active form in the insect gut

Answer: The inactive prototoxin gets converted into active form in the insect gut

91. Transgenic plants are the ones

(A) Generated by introducing foreign DNA into a cell and regenerating a plant from the cell

(B) Produced after protoplast fusion in artificial medium

(C) Grown in artificial medium after hybridization in the field

(D) Produced by a somatic embryo in artificial medium

Answer: Generated by introducing foreign DNA into a cell and regenerating a plant from the cell

92. The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis is widely used in contemporary biology as

(A) Insecticide

(B) Agent for production of diary products

(C) Source of industrial enzyme

(D) Indicator of water pollution

Answer: Insecticide

93. Golden rice is

(A) A variety of rice grown along the yellow river in china

(B) Long stored rice having yellow colour tint

(C) A transgenic rice having gene for β-carotene

(D) Wild variety of rice with yellow coloured grains

Answer: A variety of rice grown along the yellow river in china

94. In RNAi,genes are silenced using

(A) ss DNA

(B) ds DNA

(C) ds RNA

(D) ss RNA

Answer: ds RNA

95. The first clinical gene therapy was done for the treatment of

(A) AIDS

(B) Cancer

(C) Cystic fibrosis

(D) SCID

Answer: Cystic fibrosis

96. ADA is an enzyme which is deficient in a genetic disorder SCID. What is the full form of ADA?

(A) Adenosine deoxyaminase

(B) Adenosine deaminase

(C) Aspartate deaminase

(D) Arginine deaminase

Answer: Adenosine deaminase

97. Silencing of a gene could be achieved through the use of

(A) Short interfering RNA(RNAi)

(B) Antisense RNA

(C) By both

(D) None of the above

Answer: By both

98. Silencing of m-RNA has been used in producing transgenic plants resistant to

(A) Bollworms

(B) Nematodes

(C) White rusts

(D) Bacterial blights

Answer: Nematodes

99. Tobacco plants resistant to a nematode have been developed by the introduction of DNA that produces(in the host cell)

(A) Both sense and anti-sense RNA

(B) A particular hormone

(C) An antifeedant

(D) A toxin protein

Answer: Both sense and anti-sense RNA

100. Amplification of gene of interest by using DNA polymerase may go upto

(A) 0.1 million times

(B) 1.0 million times

(C) 1.0 billion times

(D) 1.0 trillion times

Answer: 1.0 billion times

📚👉Biology Objective Type Questions and Answers📚👈

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