NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Political Science The Cold War Era, All Questions and Answers for Class 12 Humanity students………..
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty:
It allows only nuclear weapon states to have nuclear weapons and stops others from acquiring them. A nuclear weapon state is one which had manufactured and exploded nuclear explosive devices prior to 1 January, 1967. So there are five nuclear weapon states: US, USSR, Britain, France and China.
1. Limited Test Ban Treaty: Banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August 1963 came into force on 10 October, 1963.
A non-aligned posture also served India’s interests very directly as well as India intervened in world affairs to soften cold war rivalries by reducing differences between the alliances and from escalating into a full scale war. Though India’s policy of non-alignment was criticised on a number of counts:
1. Superpowers Use Their Military Power to bring countries into their respective alliances.
Emergence of bipolar world:
1. Two superpowers expanded their own spheres of influence in different parts of the world.
The non-aligned countries were more than merely mediators during the’ Cold War. The challenge for most of the non-aligned countries — a majority of them were categorised as the Least….
Six factors responsible for the disintegration of USSR are—
(i) The internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions failed to meet the aspirations of the people.
Even if one of them tries to attack and disable the nuclear weapons of its rivals, the other would still be left with enough nuclear weapons to inflict unacceptable destruction…….
Non-alignment posture was in the interest of India because:
1. Non-alignment allowed India to take international decisions to serve her own interests.
Non-aligned Movement was based on a recognition that decolonised states shared a historical affiliation and can become powerful if they come together.
Two founders of Non-aligned Movement were:
1. Indonesia’s Sukarno and
2. Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah
The first NAM was held in Belgrade in 1961. This was the culmination of following three factors:
In 1962, the Soviet Union decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base as it provided USSR diplomatic and financial aid both. Hence, the Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba…….