Describe any six factors responsible for the disintegration of the USSR.
Six factors responsible for the disintegration of USSR are—
(i) The internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions failed to meet the aspirations of the people.
(ii) Economic stagnation for many years led to severe consumer shortages and a large section of Soviet society began to doubt and question the system and to do so openly.
(iii) The Soviet Union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well. The Communist Party that had ruled the Soviet Union for over 70 years was not accountable to the people. Ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administration, rampant corruption, the inability of the system to correct mistakes it had made, the unwillingness to allow more openness in government and the centralisation of authority in a-vast land.
(iv) The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenal and the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe and within the Soviet system. This led to a huge economic burden that the system could not cope with.
(v) When Gorbachev became the President, he carried out reforms and loosened the system. He set in motion forces and expectations that few could have predicted and became virtually impossible to control. There were sections of Soviet society which felt that Gorbachev should have moved much faster and were disappointed and impatient with his methods. Others, especially members of the Communist Party and those who were served by the system, took exactly the opposite view. In this tug of war, Gorbachev lost support on all sides.
(vi) The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republics, Ukraine, Georgia, and others proved to be the final and most immediate cause for the disintegration of the USSR.
Which among the following statements does not reflect the objectives of NAM?
Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements that describe the features Of Old Military alliances formed by the superpowers.
Here is a list of countries. Write against each of these blocks they belonged to during the Cold War.
The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control. What were the reasons for both these developments?
Why did the superpowers have military alliances with smaller countries? Give three reasons.
Sometimes it is said that the Cold War was a simple struggle for power and that ideology had nothing to do with it. Do you agree with this? Give one example to support your position.
What was India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR during the Cold War era? Do you think that this policy helped India’s interests?
NAM was considered a ‘third option’ by third world countries! How did this option benefit their growth during the peak of the Cold War?
What do you think about the statement that NAM has made bdcoPie irrelevant today? Give reasons to support your opinion.
What is the relevance of the non-aligned movement after the end of the Cold War?
MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED In Political Science
Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation also called Western Alliance?
2. Name the two superpowers responsible for the Cold War. When did the world become unipolar?
3. What does the USSR stand for?
4. When did NATO and WARSAW PACT come into existence?
5. Mention the period of first and second World Wars.
6. What is meant b; .old War?
7. “ Non-alignment does not imply neutrality or equidistance.” What does this statement mean?
8. What was the deterrence relationship between superpowers?
9. How did superpowers maintain arms- control?
10. What do you understand about Least Developed Countries?
11. What was the difference in the ideology of Western Alliances and that of Eastern Alliances?
12. What was India’s policy of Non¬alignment?
13. Why did India not join either of the two camps during the Cold War?
14. How were the military alliances beneficial to smaller nations during the Cold War?
15. Name any two foreign leaders along with the countries they belonged to, who are recognised as the founders of NAM.
16. What was the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT)?
17. When and where the first NAM Summit was held?
Very Short Answer Type Questions
1. What is meant by the Cuban Missile Crisis?
2. What was the main objective of the New International Economic Order?
3. Mention two military features of the Cold War.
4. Explain Eastern and Western alliance during the Cold war.
5. When did NATO come into existence? How many states joined it?
6. Name any two arms control treaties signed between two superpowers in the 1960s.
7. Name two leaders who played crucial roles in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
8. Explain any four objectives on Non- aligned Movement.
9. Mention any four important events which took place during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
10. Who was the key leader of NAM who tried to reduce the Cold War conflicts?
11. Why were most of the countries categorised as Least Developed Countries?
Short Answer Type Questions
1. Why did India distance itself from the two camps led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union? Explain.
2. “The drop of bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the US was a political game.” Justify the statement.
3. Explain the Cuban Missile Crisis.
4. Name any two founders of Non-aligned Movement. The first NAM summit was the culmination of which three factors?
5. What is the rationale of the Non-aligned movement after the end of the Cold War?
6. Which core values keep non-alignment relevant even after the Cold War has ended?
7. “ Non-alignment posture was in the interest of India”. How?
8. How did the deterrence relationship prevent war between two superpowers?
Long Answer Type Questions
1. Describe any six factors responsible for the disintegration of the USSR.
2. What is meant by the New International Economic Order? Mention any four reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972.
3. What led to the emergence of the bipolar world? What were the arenas of the Cold War between the two power blocks?
4. How did Europe become the main arena of conflict between the superpowers?
5. “India’s policy of non-alignment was criticised on a number of counts.” Explain.
6. Explain various arms control treaties.
7. Define the various treaties to control arms.
2. How do archaeologists trace socio-economic differences in Harappan society? What are the differences that they notice?
3. Would you agree that the drainage system in Harappan cities indicates town planning? Give reasons for your answer.
4. List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. Describe the process by which any one kind of bead was made.
5. Look at figure 1.30 (See NCERT page-26) and describe what you see. How is the body placed? What are the objects placed near it? Are there any artefacts on the body? Do these indicate the sex of the skeleton?
6. Describe some of the distinctive features of Mohenjodaro.
7. List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan Civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained.
8. Discuss how archaeologists reconstruct the past.
9. Discuss the functions that may have been performed by rulers in Harappan society.
10. On the given map, use a pencil to circle the sites where evidence of agriculture has been recovered. Mark an X against sites where there is evidence of craft production and R against sites where raw materials were found.
1. Discuss the evidence of craft production in Early Historic cities. In what ways is this different from the evidence from Harappan cities?
2. Describe the salient features of mahajanapadas.
3. How do historians reconstruct the lives of ordinary people?
4. Compare and Contrast The List Of Things Given To The Pandyan Chief With Those Produced In The Village of Danguna Do You Notice Any Similarities and Differences?
5. List some of the problems faced by epigraphists.
6. Discuss The Main Features Of Mauryan Administration. Which Of These Elements Are Evident In The Asokan Inscriptions That You Have Studied?
7.This is a statement made by one of the best-known epigraphists of the twentieth century, D.C. Sircar: “There is no aspect of life, culture, activities of the Indians that is not reflected in inscriptions.” Discuss.
8.Discuss the notions of kingship that developed in the post-Mauryan period
9. To What Extent Were Agricultural Practices Transformed In The Period Under Consideration?
10. What Is Artificial Irrigation?