Discuss The Functions That May Have Been Performed By Rulers In Harappan Society.

Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation

Discuss The Functions That May Have Been Performed By Rulers In Harappan Society.

Ans: There are different views on Harappan society. One group of archaeologists suggest that the Harappan society had no rulers and so everybody enjoyed equal status. The other group of archaeologists are of the opinion that there was no single ruler but several ones. The third theory seems the most suitable. It suggests that it is unlikely that entire communities could have collectively made and implemented such complex decisions.

Evidence shows that complex decisions were taken and implemented in Harappan society. Extra ordinary uniformity of Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery, seals, weights and bricks show the complex decisions.

Plans and layouts of the city were prepared under the guidance and supervision of the rulers. Big buildings, palaces, forts, tanks, wells, canals and granaries were constructed.

Cleanliness was the responsibility of the ruler. Roads, lanes and drains were also constructed.

The rulers also looked after the welfare of the economy. They used to inspire the farmers to increase agricultural production. They also motivated the craftsmen to promote different handicrafts. External and internal trade were both promoted by the ruler. The ruler used to issue common acceptable coins or seals, weights and measurements.

Rulers were expected to provide relief during natural calamity. During flood, earthquake, epidemics, the ruler provided grains and other eatables to the affected people. During foreign aggression, the rulers defended the city.

Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation

2. How do archaeologists trace socio-economic differences in Harappan society? What are the differences that they notice?

3. Would you agree that the drainage system in Harappan cities indicates town planning? Give reasons for your answer.

4. List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. Describe the process by which any one kind of bead was made.

5. Look at figure 1.30 (See NCERT page-26) and describe what you see. How is the body placed? What are the objects placed near it? Are there any artefacts on the body? Do these indicate the sex of the skeleton?

6. Describe some of the distinctive features of Mohenjodaro. 

7. List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan Civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained.

8. Discuss how archaeologists reconstruct the past.

9. Discuss the functions that may have been performed by rulers in Harappan society.

10. On the given map, use a pencil to circle the sites where evidence of agriculture has been recovered. Mark an X against sites where there is evidence of craft production and R against sites where raw materials were found.

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