Simon Commission (1927): Spread of the movement: First Round Table Conference: Second Round Table Conference: Third Round Table Conference:
The Act of 1919 included a provision for its review after a lapse of ten years. However, the review commission was appointed by the British Government two years earlier of its schedule in 1927.
Chairman: Sir John Simon. All its seven members were Englishmen. As there was no Indian member in it, the Commission faced a lot of criticism even before it landina in India picketing by women before the shops selling liquor, opium and foreign clothes;
organising the bonfires of foreign clothes; spinning clothes by using charkha fighting untouchability; boycotting of schools and colleges by students and resigning from government jobs by the people. not to pay taxes to the government.
The movement spread to all parts of the country.
Students, workers, farmers and women, all participated in this movement with great enthusiasm.
As a reaction, the British Government arrested important leaders of the Congress and imprisoned them.Round Table Conferences The British government adopted the strategy of talking to different political parties by convening the Round Table Conferences.
The first Round Table Conference was held in November 1930 at London and it was boycotted by the Congress.
In January 1931 in order to create a conducive atmosphere for talks, the government lifted
the ban on the Congress Party and released its leaders from prison.
On 8 March 1931 the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed. As per this pact, Mahatma Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil-Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second Round Table Conference.
In September 1931, the Second Round Table Conference was held at London.
Mahatma Gandhi participated in the Conference but returned to India disappointed as no agreement could be reached on the demand of complete
independence and on the communal question. In January 1932, the Civil-Disobedience Movement was resumed.
The government responded to it by arresting Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Patel and by reimposing the ban on the Congress party.
The third Round Table Conference came to an end in 1932.
The Congress once more did not take part in it.
In March 1933, the British Government issued a White Paper, which became the basis for the enactment of the Government of India Act, 1935.