Learn The Ideal Soil, Water and Environment for Fish Production
Soil and water play an important role in increasing fish production. The physical and chemical nature of the pond water and the quality of the fishery resources cultivated in the pond are mainly affected by its soil and the surrounding climate. These in turn help in the production of fish.
Therefore, for fisheries, knowledge of the differences between soil and water quality in the production of fisheries and their proper condition are essential for fisheries.
In the field of fisheries, the soil’s physical and chemical composition is mainly due to its structure, acidity or alkalinity, organic carbon, and the availability of easily available nitrogen and phosphorus. Energy and biodiversity depend. Therefore, the following are some of the reasons why these soils are important.
Soil is usually formed by organic and inorganic substances. The organic matter is determined by the ratio of bankeria and organic carbon and the amount of sand, slag and mud in the soil. Of these three components, mud is the smallest (less than 0.02 mm) in size and is considered to be the main part of the soil. This is because of the large amount of chemicals and nutrients the soil relies on. Excessive sand content in the soil (75%) reduces the water retention capacity of the pond and the lack of nutrients. On the other hand, the amount of mud was high (80 percent). Excessive energy retention can lead to dehydration. Therefore, this type of soil is not considered suitable for ponds. In pond soils, 23-52% of sand and 27-50%. It is considered to be suitable for fisheries if it has a slope and 4-24 parts of mud.
Soil acidity or pH:
The acidity or alkalinity of the soil is determined on a scale of 0-18. The number of scales below 7, 7, and above is considered neutral, acid, and alkaline soils, respectively. If the soil acidity is less than 5.5 and the humidity is more than 4.0, it is unsuitable for fisheries. This is because of the essential nutrients and benefits. “In each case, they have seized it, despite obstacles we can scarcely imagine.” And the highest in neutral (4.0). The acidity or alkalinity values in fishery pond soils are usually between 5.5 and 7.8. However, it is considered to be the ideal soil for fisheries if it is between 7.5 and 7.5.
The organic matter in the soil greatly affects the fish production capacity of the pond. In addition, the water retention capacity of the pond and the efficiency of the bacteria depend largely on the organic matter. Chemical and organic fertilizers used for fish production, the use of artificial food, and the release of dead plankton increase the amount of organic carbon in the pond. Therefore, in very old pond soils, it is more than 2.5%, and in newly excavated pond soils it is less than 0.5%. The amount of organic carbon in pond soils used for fish production is less than 0.5% and more than 2.5%, which reduces fish production. Therefore, in a favorable environment, the amount of organic carbon in the soil should be between 0.5 and 1.5 percent for fish production.
Jabberworm is essential for nutrients. The only source of soil in the pond is its organic matter, mainly in organic matter. The organic matter in the soil is used by the phyto plankton, the components of the inorganic fertilizer produced by the bacterium, which is degraded by bacteria. Therefore, pond soils with high levels of organic matter contain less organic matter than young soils. In the old and newly excavated pond soils, the amount of easily available nitrogen is more than 0.075 per cent and less than 0.015 per cent, respectively. However, in standard soils for fisheries, the amount should be between 0.025 and 0.05 percent.
In the soil, the amount of phosphorus is usually much lower than the amount of nitrogen. Phosphorus alone is essential for the good use of nitrogen. Due to the low level of phosphorus in the soil and the fact that both acidic and alkaline soils interfere with its availability, phosphorus acts as a limited factor in aquaculture production. The amount of phosphorus commonly found in pond soils is usually low. The percentage is less than 0.03% and the rate is more than 0.04%. Phosphorus is rarely found in young pond soils. If the amount of phosphorus easily available in pond soils for fish production ranges from 0.03 to 0.004 percent, it is considered suitable soil.
Water quality standards:
Pool water with the necessary quality is essential for the production of fish. Differences in soil quality, rainfall, and temperature. And due to other environmental conditions, water quality differences in different parts of the country are observed. In order to produce good fish, water must have the necessary nutrients, so that natural fish food can be produced. Various basic ingredients such as coal, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon, manganese, oxygen, boron, iron, copper, iodine, molybdenum are common. Some of them evaporate from the atmosphere and some from other soils. Thus, some of the various elements in the water are in great demand for natural fish food production and are considered to be the main ingredients. Therefore, the following are the basic chemical and chemical properties of water that regulate the production of natural fish food.
The depth, temperature, humidity, and color of the water in the pond are considered to be the physical conditions of the water, and this greatly affects the quality of the water and contributes to the production of fish.
Depth of water:
Physical and chemical properties of water, such as the process of heat and light absorption, penetrate to the bottom of the water, increasing the temperature of the water, thereby helping to increase the production of more natural fish foods. However, the pond, which is less than a meter deep, is extremely hot in the summer, creating an adverse environment for fish and other aquatic life. On the other hand, deep water temperatures are lower than those of the upper reaches, and the lack of heat is required to reduce productivity. In such cases, the amount of some harmful gases that interfere with the production of fish is high. Therefore, the average water depth should be between 2.0 and 2.5 meters.
Thermal energy is essential for the physical activity of aquatic animals, which is obtained by the radiation of the sun’s rays. The amount of water and the intensity of the sunlight change the temperature of the water, and aquatic animals usually tolerate this type of temperature change. Carp can withstand temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 degrees Celsius. According to the temperature, there are some differences in the physical growth of the fish and their ability to absorb food. Temperatures of 25 to 35 degrees Celsius are generally favorable for fish.
The penetration of light into the water is affected by the abundance of water. Floating, muddy, organic matter in water while floating. And the combination of the pigments created by the breakdown of organic matter leads to water retention. Rainfall is temporary due to the influx of floodwaters and floodwaters. Ability is caused by ponds, and such temporary aberrations are not harmful to fish production, but fisheries are long-lasting. Disrupts production. Longevity is the smallest of the soils. Collidal clay is usually formed. The newly dug ponds have a long shelf life, and as the ponds grow older, the number of such ponds decreases. Prolonged exposure to obesity disrupts the flow of light into the water, reducing the absorption of light and reducing food intake. Production is disrupted. So pond water for fish production. The distance of light penetration should be at least 20 cm.
The color of the pond water also gives an idea of the fish production capacity of the pond. The color of the water is changed by the soluble or floating state of various chemical and organic substances. Different types of soils and the natural food of fish, as well as the different types of water used by Plankton, are different. Among them, the lack of tons of phytoplankton in very clean water reduces the primary fish feed intake. If the pond water is green, it is suitable for fish production, because the presence of phytoplankton makes the water pale green, which increases the amount of primary nutrients. Similarly, the higher the number of zooplankton in the pond, the more likely it is that the water will turn brown. So the color of the fish pond water should be green with a light brown color.
Light is essential for the synthesis and diffusion of light. Therefore, the lack of light in the pond water reduces the productivity. The location of the pond and the surrounding rays of young trees do not allow enough light to fall into the pond. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the lack of light in the pond for fish production.
Chemical constituents of water:
Of the chemical components of water, acidity or alkalinity (pH), dissolved. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, phosphorus, and group alkaline acids mainly affect fish production capacity.
Acidity or alkalinity (ph):
The acidity or alkalinity of water is considered to be a key feature. “It simply came to our notice then. The amount of acidity or alkalinity of water usually depends on the amount of acidity or alkalinity of the soil. Low alkaline water is more productive than acidic water. This is because the availability of nutrients or the efficiency of bacteria is higher in low-salt water. If the acidity of the water is higher than 7.8-4.0 and the alkalinity is higher than 9.0, it is not conducive to the physical growth and reproduction of the fishes. The acidity or alkalinity of pond water in fish farming usually ranges from 6.0 to 7.0, and the amount of acidity or alkalinity changes daily by the process of light synthesis. It is less watery during sunrise and higher in the evening. For proper production, the amount should be limited to 7.5 to 7.5.
Most aquatic animals are soluble in water for their livelihood. Depends on the oxygen in the condition. That’s the decent thing to do, and it should end there. Life cycle and physical processes are regulated. In addition to the chemical changes occurring in the environment of the pond water and oxygen. Dissolved oxygen alone is essential for decomposition. The pool and water are filled with oxygen through the process of atmospheric and light synthesis. Oxygen saturation usually depends on atmospheric pressure, pond water temperature, and the amount of dissolved salt. In addition, the analysis of water, the respiration of living organisms, and the slow diffusion of water change the amount of oxygen dissolved in water day and night. In the morning, the amount of oxygen in the lungs decreases, and gradually increasing, increasing in the afternoon, and decreasing. At midnight, the amount is minimal. This change in dissolved oxygen in the water can usually be tolerated by most carp and can survive up to 3.0 milligrams per liter of dissolved oxygen, but this amount of dissolved oxygen in the water can be long-lasting in fish. Therefore, the amount of dissolved oxygen in pond water for fish production should not be more than 5.0 mg per liter and in no case should it be less than 3.0 mg per liter.
Carbon dioxide is essential for aquatic plants’ light absorption process, but in large quantities it is harmful to fishermen. The atmosphere, the respiration of living things, and the decomposition of organic matter reduce and increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the water, as well as the carbon dioxide in the night. Cloudy weather and sudden plankton depletion increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the water. In this case, the amount of dissolved oxygen is reduced. Low levels of carbon dioxide are not harmful to fish. Even if the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water is sufficient, fish can survive up to 70 milligrams of carbon dioxide per liter. However, the lack of dissolved oxygen interferes with the ability of fish to absorb oxygen in highly carbonated water. The amount of carbon dioxide in a pond usually depends on the moisture content and alkalinity of the water. Ponds with less than 7.3 mL of carbon dioxide are found to be carbon dioxide, usually less than 10 milligrams per liter, which is not harmful to fish.
In water, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbons are the most common sources of water, and their total amount of calcium carbonate and bicarbonate per liter is usually found in most water, but the amount of hydrocarbons seen in water Carbonate, bicarbonate and dissolved. Due to the chemical balance between the two, the carbon dioxide in the water is disrupted. Happens. Carbon dioxide and bicarbonate changes in the amount of carbon dioxide caused by the process of light absorption and respiration, resulting in a chemical balance. In the morning, only carbonate in the water and in the afternoon both carbonate and bicarbonate are visible. Hydroxide alkalinity is observed in high alkaline water (more than PH-4.6). The amount of alkalinity in pond water is usually limited to 20 to 200 milligrams per liter, and the amount of freshwater pond is usually reduced. Less than 20 milligrams of water per liter is unsuitable for fish farming and the amount should be more than 50 milligrams per liter. Nursery ponds should be in the range of 60 to 100 milligrams per liter.
Among the various inorganic substances dissolved in water, nitrogen and phosphorus are the main ones. These components are more likely to be used to produce fish than other inorganic substances in water, such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium, and the lack of any of these components can lead to a significant reduction in fish production. Therefore, in the production of fish, nitrogen and phosphorus are considered to be limited factors.
Both organic and inorganic compounds are soluble in water, and aquatic animals and plants consider the organic compounds necessary for their life cycle to be organic compounds. Aquatic plants usually use inorganic nitrogen, but animals absorb natural or artificial organic nitrogen. There is a large difference in the amount of inorganic nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) in the pond water, which is usually less than 1.0 milligrams per liter. In newly dug ponds, the amount is less than 0.1 mg per liter. For good production, the amount of nitrogen in the pond water should be between 0.1 mg and 0.2 mg per liter.
Although nitrogen is essential for the production of living organisms, large amounts of non-ionized ammonia and dissolved nitrite are harmful to fish. In addition to contaminated water, the amount of nitrite in fresh water is usually negligible, and in general, non-ionized ammonia levels are less than harmful. However, fish with high alkaline water (pH above 6.0) and a total of dissolved nitrogen in water above 24 degrees Celsius are more harmful to fish than 3.0 milligrams per liter.
Due to the low phosphorus content in the soil, the amount of water in the pond is very low, and in most pond water it acts as a limited factor for fish production. Both organic and inorganic phosphorus. Compounds are soluble in water, but soluble orthophosphate is easily used by plants. The amount of dissolved phosphorus in the pond water is usually less than 0.2 milligrams per liter, but in order to produce favorable fish, the amount of water in the pond should be between 0.05 and 0.10 milligrams per liter.
Ponds with ideal soil and quality water for fish production are rarely seen due to extreme environmental conditions. However, regular monitoring of soil and water factors affecting fish production can lead to improved fish production.