WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political.
Under article 1 of the Constitution the territory of india comprises three categories of territories:
(a) territory of states (b) union territories (c) territories that may be acquired by the government of india at any time.
At present there are twenty eight states and eight territories. The States are the members of the federal system in india and share a distribution of power with the centre. The union territories , on the other hand, are those areas which are under the direct control and administration of the central government.
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Creation of union territories:
During the British rule certain areas were constituted as scheduled districts in 1874.later they came to be known as chief commissioners provinces, after independence they were placed in the category of part ‘c’ and part ‘D’ territories . In 1956,they were constituted as the Union territories by the 7th Constitutional Amendment Act (1956) and the states Reorganisation Act (1956).
Gradually some of these union territories have been elevated to statehood. Thus Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Goa Which are states today were formerly Union Territories.
At present, there are eight Union Territories. They are -(1) Andaman and Nicobar islands (1956) ,(2) Delhi(1956), (3) Lakshadweep (1961), (4) Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (2020), (5) Puducherry (1962), (6) chandigarh(1966), (7) Jammu and Kashmir (2019),(8) Ladakh(2019).
The Union Territories have been created for a variety of reasons.
1.Political and administrative consider action- Delhi and chandigarh.
2.Cultural distinctiveness- Puducherry, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
3.strategic importance- Andaman and Nicobar islands and Lakshadweep.
4.Special treatment and care of the backward and tribal people – Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura and Arunachal pradesh, which latter became states.
When was all union territories formed by namely ?
In 2019 , the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir was bifurcated into separate Union Territory, namely, the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the Union Territory of Ladakh.
The Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu bill 2019 was introduced in lok sabha by the minister of home affairs, Mr. Amit shah on November 26,2019.The bill provides for the merger of the Union Territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman Diu inti single Union territory. The bill was implement from 26 January 2020 .
Administration of Union Territories-
Article 239 to 241 in part VIII of the Constitution deal with the Union Territories. Even though all the Union Territories belong to one category, there is no uniformity in their administration system.
Ever Union Territories is administration by the president acting thorough an administrator appointed by him. An administrator of a Union Territory is an agent of the president and not head of state like governor. The president can specify the designation of an administrator; it may be Lieutenant Governor or chief Commissioner Or Administrator. At present it is Lieutenant Governor in case of Delhi, Puducherry, Andaman and Nicobar islands, Jammu and Kashmir and Kashmir and Ladakh and administrator in the case of Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu and Lakshadweep.
The union Territories of Puducherry, Delhi and Jammu and Kashmir are provided with a legislative Assembly and a council of ministers headed by a chief minister. The remaining 6 Union Territories do not have such popular political institutions.
The parliament can establish a high court for a Union Territory or put it under the jurisdiction of the high court of adjacent state. Delhi is the only Union territory that gas a high court of its own ( since 1966) . The Bombay High Court has got jurisdiction over two union territories -Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. Andaman and Nicobar islands, Chandigarh, Lakshadweep and Puducherry are placed under the calcutta, Punjab , Haryana, Kerala and madras High court respectively. The Jammu and Kashmir High court is the common high court for Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
The constitutional provision for the administration of the acquired territories special provisions for Delhi
The 69th constitutional Amendment Act of 1991 provided a special status to the Union Territory of Delhi, and redesignated it the National Capital Territory of Delhi and designated the administrator of Delhi as the lieutenant (lt.) Governor. It created a legislative assembly and a council of ministers for Delhi. Previously Delhi had a metropolitan council and an executive Council.
The strength of the assembly is fixed at 70 members, directly elected by the people. The elections are conducted by the l by the president on the advice of the chief minister. The council of minister is collectively responsible to the assembly. The council of minister headed by the chief minister
What Are The Latest Law Of Constitution Of India: Administration of Union Territories?
(1) Save as otherwise provided by Parliament by law, every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting, to such extent as he thinks fit, through an administrator to be appointed by him with such designation as he may specify.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Part VI, the President may appoint the Governor of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory, and where a Governor is so appointed, he shall exercise his functions as such administrator independently of his Council of Ministers.
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