Apart from rainfall, the farmers now began to look at artificial forms of irrigation. This prompted farmers to build wells, ponds, and – canals often collectively. This increased agricultural production.
The production increased due to new technology and tools. This created a new strata in the society. In the Buddhist literature, there is a description of small and big farmers. They were called Grihpatis. Similar description is given in Tamil literature too. The position of village head was often hereditary. In such a situation the ownership of land became very important.
Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation
2. How do archaeologists trace socio-economic differences in Harappan society? What are the differences that they notice?
3. Would you agree that the drainage system in Harappan cities indicates town planning? Give reasons for your answer.
4. List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. Describe the process by which any one kind of bead was made.
5. Look at figure 1.30 (See NCERT page-26) and describe what you see. How is the body placed? What are the objects placed near it? Are there any artefacts on the body? Do these indicate the sex of the skeleton?
6. Describe some of the distinctive features of Mohenjodaro.
7. List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan Civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained.
8. Discuss how archaeologists reconstruct the past.
9. Discuss the functions that may have been performed by rulers in Harappan society.
10. On the given map, use a pencil to circle the sites where evidence of agriculture has been recovered. Mark an X against sites where there is evidence of craft production and R against sites where raw materials were found.
Class 12 History Chapter 2 Kings, Farmers and Towns Early States and Economies
1. Discuss the evidence of craft production in Early Historic cities. In what ways is this different from the evidence from Harappan cities?
2. Describe the salient features of mahajanapadas.
3. How do historians reconstruct the lives of ordinary people?
4. Compare and Contrast The List Of Things Given To The Pandyan Chief With Those Produced In The Village of Danguna Do You Notice Any Similarities and Differences?
5. List some of the problems faced by epigraphists.
6. Discuss The Main Features Of Mauryan Administration. Which Of These Elements Are Evident In The Asokan Inscriptions That You Have Studied?
7.This is a statement made by one of the best-known epigraphists of the twentieth century, D.C. Sircar: “There is no aspect of life, culture, activities of the Indians that is not reflected in inscriptions.” Discuss.
8.Discuss the notions of kingship that developed in the post-Mauryan period
9. To What Extent Were Agricultural Practices Transformed In The Period Under Consideration?